Old Iron Town

Although discovered by Peter Shirts in early 1868 – the area known as Iron City blossomed under the investment of Ebenezer Hanks. In June of 1868 Hanks established the Union Iron Company, later known as the Great Western Iron Company.

One of the remaining charcoal kilns at Old Iron Town.

One of the remaining charcoal kilns at Old Iron Town.

The 1870 census indicates that 97 people, living in 19 households resided in Iron City. The iron works consisted of a furnace, with a 2,500–pound capacity, a pattern shop, molding shop, erastra, (grinding device) and two charcoal kilns.

The Great Western Iron Company needed large sums of capital to operate, and outside (non-Mormon) investors were sought. With new money came new labor. Many of these workers were not members of the conservative religion and Iron City soon became a place where drinking and swearing were commonplace. By 1871 Iron City had a post office, boarding house, a brick schoolhouse, butcher shop, and a general store.

At peak production the iron works produced 5-7 tons of pig iron per day. They supplied ore for the Utah Western Railroad, mining companies in Pioche, Nevada, and also provided the iron used in the 12 oxen that support the St. George LDS Temple baptismal font.

The Great Western Iron Company could not survive financially selling small items to cash- strapped Mormon settlers and could no longer afford the shipping costs for their larger contracts. The iron works closed in 1876.

Ruins at Old Iron Town.

Ruins at Old Iron Town.

Now known as Old Irontown State Park, this area has been preserved for its distinctive structures and historical presence.  In May of 1951 William R. Palmer as part of his radio broadcast “Forgotten Chapters of History” produced a program about Iron City. You can listen to that broadcast here.

Historic Archaeology

For our final post of Archaeology Month, we turned to Samantha Kirkley, the State Coordinator for Project Archaeology. She is based at Southern Utah University and has worked with us here at Frontier Homestead on a variety of topics. We asked her to explain a little bit about Historic Archaeology.

Archaeology is a sub-discipline of anthropology and can be defined as the study of people from the past.  It is often defined into two areas of research: Prehistoric and Historic.  While much of the theory and practice are similar, Historic Archaeology has a

Historic Artifacts Courtesy of Samantha Kirkley

Historic Artifacts
Courtesy of Samantha Kirkley

unique ability to bring the story of past people to life through artifacts, historic structures, oral histories, personal and government records, and landscape.  Often, the mundane items such as buttons, bottles, cans, stove parts, and the like tell us the most about the daily lives of the inhabitants of a particular location.

Historic Archaeology focuses on the study of people from the recent past.  Some have tried to define it as the archaeology aided by written records; but, in many cases, archaeology enhances our understanding of written history.  Although, written records extend back 5000+ years ago, historic archaeology begins with the first European colonizing efforts in the 1400’s and follows numerous lines of inquiry into modern times.

Some of the most notable work in this specialized field include the recent excavations at Jamestown and metal detection archaeology at the Battle of Little Big Horn.   A few historic sites worth preserving and visiting in our area include Old Iron Town, the Caretaker’s Cabin at Cedar Breaks, the Mountain Meadows Massacre Site, and Silver Reef in Washington County.  Remember to leave artifacts where you find them, even that old bottle.

Caretaker's Cabin at Cedar Breaks Courtesy of Samantha Kirkley

Caretaker’s Cabin at Cedar Breaks
Courtesy of Samantha Kirkley

 

Charcoal Kiln at Old Irontown

Charcoal Kiln at Old Irontown

 

 

 

 

Here are a few links if you would like more information about some of the places Samantha mentioned:

Jamestown Archaeology

Little Bighorn Archaeology

Old Irontown

 

 

Rock Art: A Primer

Indigenous people in this region created rock art for many reasons – to tell a story, to convey religious or spiritual beliefs, to record a significant event, and to express themselves artistically. Rock art is not a true writing system, but uses symbols and figures to convey a message.

Parowan Gap Petroglyphs Photo: Alex Santiago Courtesy of Cedar City Brian Head Tourism Bureau

Parowan Gap Petroglyphs
Photo: Alex Santiago
Courtesy of Cedar City – Brian Head Tourism Bureau

Rock art is evident in caves, on cliff walls and on boulders. Rock art occurs all over the world, some as old as 30,000 years. Rock art in this region dates back as long ago as 1000 B.C (Great Basin Curvilinear style) and as recently as A.D. 1800’s (Southern Paiute).

 

 

VOCABULARY

  • Rock Art: A general term for the pecking, incising, or painting of designs onto rock surfaces.
  • Petroglyph: A design chiseled or chipped out a rock surface.
  • Pictograph: A design painted on a rock surface.

Here are some sites in our area to see some of the world’s most amazing rock art:

Parowan Gap

Fremont Indian State Park

Lion’s Mouth Cave

Anasazi Ridge

Remember whether visiting these sites or discovering any of Utah’s incredible rock art sites, please be respectful. Many sites are legally protected and criminal prosecution could result from any form of defacement.

The Southern Paiute

The Southern Paiutes are the living descendants of ancient Numic speakers, a group which includes the Northern Paiute, Southern Paiute, Goshute, Ute and Shoshone people.  At the time of the first contact with Euro-Americans they lived from the Rocky Mountains to northern California and from central Idaho south to the Colorado River.

Wickiups

Wickiups

The Numic speaking people arrived in Utah about 700 years ago.  They originally came from the Death Valley area (southwest Nevada, southern California).  Favored dwelling places for the Numic were caves or rock overhangs, or brush shelters called wickiups. Constructed of locally available resources (grass, cattails, sagebrush, willows, pine boughs), wickiups were designed according to weather and needs.

The Southern Paiute people were nomadic hunters and gatherers who depended on wild plants and animals.  They also ate fish, waterfowl, and marsh plants.  They gathered seeds and hunted game animals such as deer, bison, elk, mountain sheep, antelope, and rabbits.  Insects such as Mormon crickets and grasshoppers were also gathered and eaten.

A Paiute camp.

A Paiute camp.

Weaving

Weaving

 

 

 

 

 

 

From spring through fall, the Southern Paiute would travel in small family bands, fishing, hunting and gathering seeds, as well as developing complex irrigation systems for local gardens.  In the fall they would gather to harvest ripe pine nuts. During winters several families would gather to form a winter village where they would share food they had gathered and stored during the warmer months.

Burden baskets

Burden baskets

Among other innovative crafts, the Paiute people were skilled basket makers.  They made winnowing trays that were used for parching seeds and winnowing wild seeds and nuts.  They also made large carrying baskets (burden baskets) for collecting wild foods, cradle boards for carrying babies, as well as water jugs. In addition, based on the construction materials and design, archaeologists have identified a pottery type recognized as being distinctly “Paiute.

Celebrate Archaeology at Frontier Homestead

A mock dig is one of the activities being presented.

A mock dig is one of the activities being presented.

Frontier Homestead State Park welcomes archaeologists young and old and their families to participate in its annual Utah Archaeology Day on Saturday, May 7, 2016. Visitors will have the opportunity to participate in activities involving Native American games, history, traditional crafts and skills, and visit with a variety of demonstrators. Boy Scouts who participate in the event can earn their Indian Lore merit badge and complete some of the Archaeology badge requirements. Archaeology Day will take place from 10:00 a.m. – 2:00 p.m. Cost per person is $2.00 per person or $5.00 per family.

Archaeology Day is the kick-off for a series of activities sponsored by Frontier Homestead State Park, the Cedar City-Brian Head Tourism Bureau, Project

Traditional crafts and skills.

Traditional crafts and skills.

Archaeology, Transcon Environmental, Southern Utah University-College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Intersearch, and the Pizza Cart; and, co-sponsored by the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service, Home Depot, and Lin’s Fresh Market.

The celebration of Utah Archaeology and Preservation Month continues on Wednesday May 11 at 7:00 pm. Come enjoy the camaraderie of the Iron County Historical Society and meet historic archaeologist and co-owner of Transcon Environmental, Everett Bassett.  Mr. Bassett will present his recent findings pertaining to the mass graves near Mountain Meadows.  This is an exceptional and enlightening experience that is open to the public. The program will take place at Frontier Homestead State Park Museum, and is free to the public.

Frontier Homestead Nov 2015 065

Corn Grinding

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Demonstratons

On Saturday May 14, enjoy a free, guided tour of Old Iron Town, a late 19th Century iron mining town.  The tour will begin at Frontier Homestead State Park at 10 am and return by 1 pm. Sack lunches will be provided to all registered participants.  You must request a reservation and receive confirmation for this event.  Space is limited to 15 individuals.  Please email Samantha Kirkley to reserve a spot, including any dietary restrictions, samanthakirkley@suu.edu.  Please come with appropriate footwear, sunscreen, and water.  Limited carpooling to the site is available.

Next, on Monday May 16, 6:00 to 8:00 pm, the public can take advantage of a rare opportunity to see artifacts from local archaeological sites.  Archaeologist and Curator, Barbara Frank, will be offering tours every half hour of the SUU Archaeological Repository.  The Repository is located in Room 101-A, west basement door, ELC, SUU campus. Directional signs will be on the doors of the ELC to ensure that you arrive.  All ages welcome!

Finally, on Wednesday, May 25, 7:00 pm at the Cedar City Public Library, archaeologist Barbara Frank will facilitate a book discussion of A Thief of Time by Tony Hillerman. Fifteen copies of this book are available at the circulation desk. This is also a great opportunity to see the Archaeology Month display inside and take time to enjoy the Rock Art out front!

According to Samantha Kirkley, State Coordinator for Project Archaeology, “Archaeology and Historic Preservation Month, a Division of State History program, is an annual celebration of Utah’s archaeological and historic resources. With so many wonderful archaeological sites in Southern Utah, we really have something to celebrate and enjoy.  Archaeology Month offers opportunities for all ages to participate in activities that promote cultural understanding and respect, and stewardship of these special places.”

Final_Flat

The Atlatl

The dart is on the way to its target.

The dart is on the way to its target.

Continuing our theme of how the local Native Americans hunted, we thought a discussion of the atlatl is necessary. The atlatl is a wooden handle about 24 inches long.  At the tip end is a hook, point, or pin.  It is used to cast or throw darts with great accuracy and tremendous force.   The darts are about 5 or 6 feet long and are flexible and look like oversized arrows.  The back end of the dart is hollowed out a bit so that it will fit over the pin on the atlatl.   This helps hold it in place but the dart is also held onto the atlatl with the thumb and first finger of the hand that is holding it in preparation for the cast.  The atlatl has been used for at least 20,000 years and predates the bow and arrow.  Compared to the atlatl, the bow and arrow is a very new development.  The atlatl was used all over the world.

The atlatl was used for more than 20,000 years because it provided greater penetrating power than a hand held spear. It had a velocity 15 times greater, could reach four times the distance and hit with an impact 200 times greater than a spear thrown by hand. Additionally, it proved multi-functional and could be used to make fire, grind pigments, as a musical instrument and often as a memory aid.

Upclose illustration of a hand holding an atlatl. Illustration by Neal Anderson

Upclose illustration of a hand holding an atlatl.
Illustration by Neal Anderson

By the early A.D.’s, the bow and arrow had almost completely replaced the atlatl. The bow and arrow allowed for greater velocity, ease and swiftness of movement, a shorter launch time, ease of mastery, and proved more accurate. Next time you stop by Frontier Homestead, ask to take a crack at the atlatl on our range and see if you have what it takes to not go hungry.

Next Time: Artist Clayton Rippey

 

Young hunters practicing their technique.

Young hunters practicing their technique.

Paiute Deadfall Trap

The Deadfall - Illustrated

The Deadfall – Illustrated

With Archaeology and Historic Preservation month in full swing, we thought it might be interesting to explore one of the ways the early residents of Iron County caught food: the Paiute deadfall trap. This type of trap is named after the native Paiute peoples – nomadic hunters and gatherers who depended on wild plants and animals.  But these simple types of traps have been used for thousands of years by people across the world.

Animal trapping, or simply trapping, is the use of a device to remotely catch an animal. Animals may be trapped for a variety of purposes, including food and pest control. Trapping also facilitates the capture of animals for their furs which may be sold or bartered for other useful items, or which may be used for making clothing and other articles.

A deadfall is a heavy rock or log that is tilted on an angle and held up with sections of branches (sticks), with one of them that serves as a trigger. When the animal moves the trigger that has bait on or near it, the rock or log falls, crushing the animal. The Paiute deadfall is a popular and simple trap constructed from materials found in nature (three sticks with notches cut into them, cordage, plus a heavy rock or other heavy object). Next time you visit Frontier Homestead, test your skills and see how long it takes for you to set this trap.

Next Time: Atl-atl

Our New Native Heritage Exhibit

Map of the planned Native Heritage Exhibit.

Map of the planned Native Heritage Exhibit.

Iron County and Cedar City have a long cultural history, including that of Native peoples dating back thousands of years prior to the arrival of European settlers.  Before pioneers arrived in Southwest Utah, there were a number of different American Indian groups who lived here: 1) Paleo-Indians, 2) Archaic people, 3) the Ancestral Pueblo (Anasazi), 4) the Fremont, and 5) the Numic (Paiute).  The Paleo-Indians were the oldest, going back 12,000 years, followed by Archaic hunter and gatherers, the Ancestral Pueblo, and the Fremont culture. The most recent are the Numic who arrived between 500-700 years ago and are still living here.  At Frontier Homestead, these traditions are represented by the Paiute camp and surrounding area that is dedicated to telling the story of these early peoples.
The pithouse under construction.

The pithouse under construction.

  The Native Heritage Exhibit, a new area of Frontier Homestead State Park & Museum, will allow each visitor the chance to experience how Native peoples lived in Iron County prior to Euroamerican settlement.  Additionally, students will be able to become archaeologists for the day, learning techniques and methods of the archaeological process.Explore the Fremont pit house and the Paiute wickiups, see a traditional shade shelter and Native garden, all set among native vegetation and replica prehistoric village mounds.

This project is a joint effort of the Frontier Homestead Museum Foundation, The Archaeological Conservancy, Southern Utah University, Project Archaeology, and Cedar City RAP Tax.

Next Time: Paiute Deadfall Trap

Corn grinding will be one of the activities available.

Corn grinding will be one of the activities available.

Archaeology Month is here!

Throwing the Atl Atl.

 

May is Archaeology and Historic Preservation month in Utah, and Frontier Homestead, along with Southern Utah University, Project Archaeology, the Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Forest service have teamed up to provide a slate of activities that all ages can enjoy.

The fun begins on Saturday, May 2 from 10am to 3pm, with the fourth annual Archeology Day at Frontier Homestead. Learn how to throw an Atl-Atl, build an ancient dwelling, and make your own rock art and rope. Boy Scouts will be able to earn their Indian Lore merit badge. Bring some stuff from home and “Ask and Archaeologist” to give you some insight into your family treasures. Park entrance fee is $1.50 per person or $5.00 per family.  We will also be offering a guided tour of Parowan Gap led by BLM archaeologist Jamie Palmer. The tour leaves at 9am from Frontier Homestead and will return in time to enjoy the activities at the museum. Carpool or drive yourself, the choice is yours.

Building a Wikiup for the Indian Lore merit badge.

Building a Wikiup for the Indian Lore merit badge.

On Monday, May 4 from 6-8pm the SUU archeology repository will be open for tours. This is a rare opportunity to see artifacts from a variety of archeological sites around southern Utah. Curator Barbara Frank will be offering these tours every half hour.

Old Iron Town is next tour stop during this month long celebration of the past. Museum staff member Stephen Olsen will be leading this tour. Olsen is full of knowledge and lore about this often overlooked site in Iron County. The tour leaves at 10am from Frontier Homestead. Bring water and sunscreen.  Once again, you can carpool or drive.

Wednesday, May 27 from 6-8pm, Frontier Homestead hosts the final event of the month. Come and mix and mingle as you look around the museum and then stay for the presentation by David Maxwell, Director of Geosciences at SUU, who will be talking about ancient rock symbols on the Arizona Strip.

For more specific information and directions, please give us a call at (435) 586-9290.

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A young archaeologist in training.

Next Time: Exploring the new Native Heritage Exhibit